After the US government listed Huawei as an “entity list,” Google announced that it would suspend Huawei’s update of Android, but Huawei emphasized its ability to continue to develop and use the Android ecosystem. With the emergence of “Hongmeng” and “Ark”, Huawei also said that the fastest this fall, and at the latest next spring, Huawei’s own operating system will be available, and will be compatible with all Android applications. The “blocking” of the United States has accelerated the pace of Huawei’s self-sufficiency, which has made Google a little anxious. The British “Financial Times” reported on June 7 that Google has issued a warning to the Trump administration on the “Huawei ban”. The reason they woven is that if Huawei develops its own version of the Android operating system, it will be “more vulnerable to hackers.” Attack”, “damaging US national security.”
The report quoted three sources as saying that Google executives are urging the US government to waive the export ban on Huawei. For Google, they are particularly worried that if Huawei’s mobile phone cannot update the Android operating system, it will prompt Huawei to develop its own software version. According to sources, Google has been arguing that the United States has prevented the company from dealing with Huawei and may produce two Android operating systems: genuine and hybrid operating systems. The latter “may have more vulnerabilities”, which makes Huawei mobile phones “more risk of being attacked by hackers, especially hackers from China.” Google claims that its focus is “to protect the existing millions of Google users who use Huawei phones worldwide.”
On May 15, local time, the United States began to start with Huawei. Trump signed an executive order, demanding that the United States enter a state of emergency on the grounds of “technical cybersecurity” and empowering the US Department of Commerce to allow US companies to ban US companies from purchasing telecommunications equipment and technology produced by “foreign enemies.” Subsequently, the US Department of Commerce said it plans to include Huawei and its 70 branches in the “entity list”, prohibiting Huawei from purchasing from US company suppliers. On May 20, Reuters quoted sources as saying that Google announced that it would suspend Huawei’s update of Android. On the same day, the United States decided to delay the implementation of the export control ban on Huawei for 90 days, but Huawei founder Ren Zhengfei bluntly said that this move does not make much sense to Huawei, and Huawei is ready.
Since the Android system itself is open source, Huawei can also use the public version of Android. Huawei also stressed in its response on the 20th that Huawei has the ability to continue to develop and use the Android ecosystem. Some analysts believe that due to the open source nature of Android, Google’s move may prompt Huawei to develop an Android-based operating system that does not include Google applications and services, and even develop a new operating system to build its own software application ecosystem and promote it globally. . In fact, Huawei has already begun to develop its own operating system. Shortly after Google’s suspension of Huawei’s update of Android news, Yu Chengdong, president of Huawei’s consumer business, said on social media on the evening of May 21 that Huawei’s own operating system (OS) will be available soon this fall, and at the latest next spring. . The Huawei operating system will also be compatible with all Android applications.
Yu Chengdong also said that Huawei has always insisted on building the core competence of its own chips and insisting on using and cultivating its own chips. In addition to its own chip, there are core capabilities of the operating system. On May 24th, the website of the Trademark Office of the State Intellectual Property Office of China showed that Huawei had applied for the registration of the “Hongmeng” trademark and marked the trademark for the operating system program. This indicates that Huawei has taken the first step in building an independent operating system. Subsequently, the European Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO) website also showed that many trademark applications submitted by Huawei were received on May 24, and the trademark “ARK OS (Ark Operating System)” was listed.
Reuters quoted industry experts as saying that a series of “blocking” measures in the United States are expected to hurt Huawei in the short term, but in the long run, sanctions may force Huawei and other Chinese companies to develop more local technologies. Self-reliance, and then damage the dominant position of US companies such as Google. In addition, Huawei, the world’s second-largest smartphone maker, may lose Android’s market share if it uses an operating system other than Android.
Tim Waktins, vice president of Huawei’s Western Europe business unit, previously pointed out that if Android eventually lost the world’s largest market to a Chinese mobile phone manufacturer, Google (acquired Android in 2005) would feel “angry.” According to the UN website, UN Secretary-General Guterres pointed out at the Fifth Committee meeting of the UN General Assembly on Administrative and Budgetary Affairs on the 4th that as of this year, Member States’ arrears of contributions amounted to 492 million U.S. dollars, and the UN will spend it in August this year. Do your cash and borrow from the Working Capital Fund. Guterres warned: “The shortage of funds has made it impossible to cope with normal expenses, which is disastrous for the reputation of the United Nations and its business development.”
89 Member States arrears in contributions, the United Nations may run out of cash in August this year
UN Secretary-General Guterres spoke to local students in Tunisia in April this year. Figure/Visual China’s 89 Member States owe money, and the United States owes the most information on the UN website. Among the 193 Member States of the United Nations, as of June 6, 104 Member States have all paid their 2019 regular budget assessments, of which only The 34 Member States paid their fees on time. This also means that there are still 89 Member States in arrears. As the second contributor to China, China has fully paid 12.01% of the UN’s regular budget allocation. At the press conference held in May, the UN Secretary-General’s spokesperson Stefan Dugarik expressed his gratitude to China for paying the full 2019 membership fee and said in Chinese: “Thank you”
The United Nations scale of assessments for 2019 to 2021 adopted at the UN General Assembly held on December 22 last year showed that China’s membership fees have increased substantially, surpassing Japan for the first time, becoming the second contributor to the United States, the regular budget. The share ratio increased from 7.92% to 12.01%, and the peacekeeping budget share ratio increased from 10.24% to 15.22%. The United States is the largest contributor to the United Nations, with a 22% regular budget and a 28.47% peacekeeping budget, but now has the most arrears. In January of this year, Guterres wrote to the 193 member states of the United Nations, telling that the current arrears of UN peacekeeping operations by Member States amounted to 2 billion U.S. dollars, of which the United States owed one third of the arrears. According to estimates, as of January 1 this year, the United States has arrears to the United Nations for a budget of $381 million and arrears of $776 million.
According to the Xinhua News Agency, due to the arrears of contributions by several Member States, the United Nations peacekeeping budget and the regular budget have gaps of $1.5 billion and $492 million respectively. According to Article 17 of the UN Charter, the UN’s budget for contributions is approved every two years, reviewed and approved by the UN General Assembly, and each Member State pays its dues according to the allocated limits. At present, the proportion of the United Nations contribution is determined on the principle of the ability of countries to pay, and is adjusted every three years. When determining the ratio, it mainly refers to the national income of a country in the past 6 years. Countries with high external debt or countries with low per capita income can significantly reduce the rate of assessment.
Since the US “intentionally” defaulted on the Trump administration, it has been demanding to reduce the US peacekeeping budget share. He has repeatedly complained that the United States has paid too much money to the United Nations, and issued a message on Twitter: “The United Nations has great potential, but now it is just a group of people who have gathered together to chat and pass the time. It is so sad!” At the high-level debate on peacekeeping reforms in March last year, Nikki Heili, a permanent representative to the United Nations, said that the United States will not assume a share of UN-related peacekeeping costs in the future.
In September 2017, the US President and the then US Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Heili attended the UN General Assembly. According to CNN, the Trump administration stated in its first budget after taking office that the US authorities intend to “reduce or terminate their funding” for those “international organizations that cannot significantly advance the interests of US foreign policy”. It can be seen that the arrears of contributions are planned. Bloomberg reported that Trump’s attitude was tough in the face of repeated “notices” by the United Nations, and even last year asked for higher contributions from countries such as India, Brazil and Turkey. US Secretary of State Pompeo also questioned in December last year: “The United Nations is an organization that welcomes peace-loving countries, but it is not clear whether it can serve this mission well.”
The arrears of the United States have caused dissatisfaction among the international community. However, the interests of the United States in the United Nations have not been affected in the slightest. According to Article 19 of the Charter of the United Nations, any Member State that is in arrears with financial funds will lose its voting rights in the UN General Assembly if its arrears amount equals or exceeds the amount payable in the previous two years. If Member States are in arrears for uncontrollable reasons and have been verified by the United Nations, these Member States can vote. For example, countries such as Somalia and Comoros are allowed to default due to economic difficulties. Although the United States currently has a large amount of arrears and still does not exceed the sum of the two years of fees payable, it still has the right to vote in the United Nations.
Zheng Qirong, a professor at the School of Foreign Affairs, said in an interview with the Beijing News that the United States found that the United Nations could not be united with many people on many issues. They believed that taxpayers’ money could not be used to raise an organization that was right against the United States. As for the United States complaining about the complexity and inefficiency of UN agencies, this is more of an excuse. In fact, the United States hopes to exert pressure on the United Nations through arrears of contributions, hoping that it will reform in the direction of benefiting the United States and will be able to comply with US policies in decision-making on many issues.
The financial crisis is serious. The UN Secretary-General wants to sell the United Nations as the largest international organization in the world today, but it has been plagued by the financial crisis for decades. A report issued by the United Nations Department of Public Information in 1998 pointed out that the cash shortage was extremely serious and that in order to cover its daily expenses, it sometimes had to borrow peacekeeping funds. As the global economy flourishes, the economic situation of the UN member states has improved, but this has not solved the UN’s “lack of money”.
From the perspective of funding sources, the UN budget mainly consists of three parts, the first is the national dues, followed by the peacekeeping funds. In addition, the United Nations budget also has some voluntary contributions from countries. The operations of UNICEF, the United Nations Development Programme, and the UNHCR are mainly from donations from countries, and the United States is also the largest contributor.
The budget of the United Nations is not small, so where did the money go? According to the United Nations website, its expenditure is mainly divided into three parts. The first part is the regular budget, which is mainly used for administrative expenses and activities of UN agencies, such as paying staff salaries, purchase and maintenance of office supplies and equipment, and communication. Contact, conference services, etc. The second part is the funding for peacekeeping operations. In addition, the funds donated by those Member States are used for special activities.
The financial situation is in jeopardy, and the UN Secretary-General has even moved the idea of selling houses. According to Bloomberg News, Guterres told diplomats on June 4 that in order to help the United Nations overcome financial difficulties, he wanted to sell the Secretary-General of the Secretary-General in Manhattan, New York City, at the beginning of his tenure. “I am not joking, this is true. But in the end I found it impossible.” Because according to the agreement signed between the United Nations and the United States where the headquarters is located, the sale of real estate is beyond the Secretary-General’s terms of reference. Guterres pointed out that although the United Nations has many valuable assets, they cannot be exchanged for cash and cannot alleviate financial difficulties. The United Nations Headquarters building in New York, USA. Figure / Visual China
According to the United Nations Weibo news, Guterres said that non-payment and late payment of contributions are not the only cause of the United Nations cash shortage problem, and there are structural problems in the preparation of the budget, including exchange rate, inflation, wage cost standards, etc. It is the influencing factor. He emphasized that the solution was not only to ensure that all Member States paid their contributions in full and on time, but also to implement specific reforms.
The United Nations has been reforming in recent years, streamlining institutions and personnel, and saving money, but it seems that the results are not obvious. Zheng Qirong analyzed that the reform of the United Nations is a very complicated issue involving multiple interests. For example, in terms of personnel streamlining, there are staff members from various member states in the UN agencies. Dismissal of any one person will cause controversy and dissatisfaction. The shortage of funds will affect the functioning of the United Nations. Some international foundations, individual groups and some countries that support the United Nations will take some measures to help solve financial difficulties. For example, in the 1990s, the United States also owed a huge amount of UN membership fees. At that time, a rich American company offered donations to help the UN operate. So far, there has not been a situation in which the United Nations has “closed” because of the financial crisis.