Experts suggest that through the joint training of schools and enterprises, strengthen the protection of rights and interests to attract more attractiveness. “The decoration costs are getting more and more expensive, except for the rising cost of materials such as mortar and cement, as well as the increase in labor costs.” Wang Chongming, who has worked in the construction industry for many years, is now It is the sales manager of a decoration company in Beijing. He paid a painter of a hundred yuan a day a few years ago, and now a small worker’s salary is about 100 yuan. At the moment, the construction industry where Wang Chongming is located has to face a real problem: the number of construction workers is shrinking. In the future, how can the construction industry attract new generation of migrant workers to alleviate the shortage of employment?
Workers are aging and wages are rising. “Now there are fewer and fewer workers, and they are in a period of ignorance. After our generation is old, we will slowly withdraw from this line, but the young power will not be able to make up.” Wang Chongming said. According to the “2018 Survey Report on Migrant Workers”, the total number of migrant workers in 2018 was 288.36 million, but the growth rate was only 0.6%. The proportion of migrant workers engaged in construction industry was 18.6%, down 0.3 percentage points from the previous year. Among them, the number of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei areas, which are more attractive to migrant workers, has decreased by 270,000.
After the 70s from Tianshui, Gansu, Wang Jianshui worked as a part-time worker at the site of the Beijing East Second Ring Relocation Housing Project. He also clearly felt the change. His construction team originally had more than 800 people, but now only about half of them are left. It also brought about an increase in the salaries of workers. “Workers such as plasterers and masonry settled on a floor area per square meter. On average, they can reach more than 400 yuan a day.” Master Du Shi from the hometown of Henan ten years ago. Working in Beijing, he is also increasingly feeling the lack of people in the construction industry. For example, bricklayers are sometimes employed by seven or eight owners at the same time. “Even if the wages are high, few people are willing to do it, especially young people. Because it is too hard.”
Li Lei, director of the Human Resources Center of the General Group, told the Workers Daily that although there is no obvious shortage of labor use in the living group, it can be felt that the labor recruitment organization is becoming more and more difficult. In addition, in the past three years, the group has used The wage increase of migrant workers is around 15%. He believes that mainly the lack of employment intentions of construction workers and the aging of the construction industry, resulting in the lack of highly skilled personnel and rising wages.
It is difficult to recruit and the cost of labor is high. One problem that cannot be ignored is that there are fewer and fewer young people on the construction site. In Wang Chongming’s company, the main force of the workers is 70 and 80. On Wang Jianshui’s construction site, few young people are willing to work, only a few after 90. Li Lei gave a set of data. His company currently has 22,955 migrant workers, of which 6,209 are in the 80s (30-39 years old), accounting for 27.05% of the total number, and 3,231 people after the 90s (20-29 years old). The total number of 14.08%, after 13, 60, 70 (over 40 years old) 13,359 people, accounting for 58.20% of the total number.
Zhang Shanzhu, an associate professor at the School of Public Administration of the China Institute of Labor Relations, believes that this is a normal phenomenon in China’s economic structural transformation, the upgrading of the construction industry, and the intergenerational transformation of migrant workers. The new generation of migrant workers no longer regard wage income as the sole criterion for career choice. “More pursuit of decent work, self-realization and improvement of quality of life.” Hard and tired, unable to find a wife, not willing to choose a construction site after 90 years
Xiaojie from Henan Xiangcheng in a bar in Sanlitun, Beijing is skilled to adjust the wine. He has been in Beijing for more than 4 years. He has tried different industries, hairdressing, western restaurants, construction sites and bars. “Every day, I get up early and get rid of the darkness. When the day is still not bright, I start to work. I carry a big electric drill and look down from the top of the building. It’s really tired. I can’t lift my arms at the beginning.” Xiaojie recalls On the construction site, he said that the construction site could not keep young people because it was too tired, and at the same time working on the construction site “will be no face.” “After all, I am still young and can’t work all the time. Although I make a lot of money, it is not a long-term solution,” he said.
The two sons who worked with Wang Jianshui in Beijing went to the factory. One went to the restaurant and was not willing to come to the construction site with his father. Wang Jianshui felt that the young people could not afford to suffer. The labor inspector Xiao Liu also gave another reason why he could not recruit young people at the construction site: “There is no wife at work.” There are very few female workers on the construction site. Even if there is a majority, they will work with their husbands. Single female workers can be regarded as “rare species”.
Cao Rong, a researcher at the Labor Relations and Trade Union Research Center of the China Institute of Labor Relations, believes that for the new generation of migrant workers with increasing demand and increasing educational level, the working environment and living environment of the construction industry are dangerous and rudimentary, and the protection of rights and interests needs to be improved. The attraction is gradually decreasing. With the rapid development of the Internet economy, the comprehensive advantages of the tertiary industry’s wages, working environment, and labor conditions have been continuously improved, making it more attractive to migrant workers after the 1990s.
Xiaohui is 90 years old, from Xiaogan, Hubei, responsible for the delivery of the Beijing Fengtai West Bureau area. He believes that although the delivery is hot and windy, it is much easier than the construction site, and the time is more free. The monthly salary is five or six thousand. Around Yuan, when you do a lot, you can reach nearly 10,000 yuan. “More work, more than one for each one.” His colleague Wu Yong also said that the construction site environment is too bad, income is not stable, and may also encounter The situation of arrears of wages, and in the more than one year of engaging in the take-away work, the monthly salary will hit the card on time.
Will construction sites be favored in the future? The new economy and new business with the sharing economy, platform economy and digital economy have become the “reservoir” for absorbing the employment of new generation of migrant workers. It is difficult for the construction industry to win their favor, resulting in the age of the construction workers. There are no successors. From a macro level, Zhang Shanzhu believes that it will restrict the technical inheritance and sustainable development of the entire construction industry and affect the implementation of the national new urbanization strategy.
On the site of the West Fourth Ring Road in Fengtai, Beijing, Shen Dawei, a shelf worker from Zhaotong, Yunnan, left his 19-year-old son to work together. His son couldn’t stand the long-time work of the factory, and his father thought that the work of taking delivery was both hard and informal. “Construction workers still have some technical skills, and they can learn how to eat at the construction site.”
Such young people are now a minority on the construction site, but they also reflect their demand for skills training and career development. The salesperson like Xiaohui also said that delivery is only a transitional work, and still very confused about what to do in the future. . So how to solve the labor shortage in the construction industry and attract these young laborers? From the perspective of enterprises, Li Lei believes that it is necessary to improve the level of fine management of employment, solve the problem of insufficient staff by improving efficiency, and establish a direction-oriented training and input channels for workers through school-enterprise cooperation.
Cao Rong believes that it is first necessary to improve the production and living conditions of the construction industry and strengthen the protection of the rights and interests of migrant workers in the construction industry in order to enhance the attractiveness of the construction industry. In addition, we must accelerate the transformation and upgrading of the construction industry, strengthen skills training, and establish a complete professional development system for construction workers.
Zhang Shanzhu expressed optimism about the future. He believes that “as long as the targeted institutional innovation and policy adjustments, the construction industry will eventually win the favor of the new generation of migrant workers, and should better meet the diversified interests of the new generation of migrant workers. Yearning for a beautiful city life.” In June, the weather was hot. Take Beijing, the highest temperature in a single day, has exceeded 30 degrees.
At this time, the coastal city was also successful and became a tourist hotspot. Qingdao, Xiamen, Weihai and other coastal tourist cities, the bleak on the beach no longer exists, replaced by lively crowds. In the process of playing, many people will definitely come up with the idea that if there is a sea view room, how good it should be.
However, the facts are far from being so beautiful. 1. The sea view room, the unforgettable complex facing the sea, the spring blossoms, is the dream of many Chinese people, more or less with a little romance and laziness. The thousands of acres of fertile land and the vast area of Guangsha are the indelible memories of the hearts of Chinese people. Deep in our cultural genes, there is a natural possessiveness to the house. Therefore, the combination of the two has created a complex of Chinese people on the sea view room. Especially for many people in the interior, the sea view room has become a simple and rude distance.
According to statistics, the total length of China’s coastline is 32,000 kilometers, including 18,000 kilometers of mainland coastline and 14,000 kilometers of island coastline. To make a simple calculation, the per capita coastline of 1.3 billion people is less than 3 cm. Seaview How deceptive? 5,000 buys 10 years ago, now 4,000 sells. If you consider the right place to live, this number will only be smaller. Scarcity, even more emphasis on the Chinese people’s complex of sea view rooms. At the same time, this has become a timeless statement for developers when selling sea view rooms.
“One-line sea view room, one set of life”, “When Song listens to the sea, watch the sunrise rises”, “The last coastline”… These advertisements with a little literary art are straightforward. The sea view room, in popular terms, is the house that can see the sea. In fact, sea view rooms are also divided into several categories: First-line sea view rooms, usually 300 meters from the sea. Second-line sea view room, generally within 800 meters from the coastline, less than 5 minutes walk to the beach. And 800 meters away, can be classified as a three-line sea view room.
However, regardless of the number of sea view rooms, the Chinese have been rushing for a long time. Speculative, investment, deceived… all sentient beings, in the ups and downs of the sea view room, the joys and sorrows of life. 2. The staggered sea view room was the first year of real estate reform. Since the end of the era when the country owes everyone a suite, the house has been officially defined as a commodity and has become an industry.
In the next few years, the people’s purchase demand and purchasing power have been fully released, and real estate development has entered the fast lane. In 1988, Hainan was separated from the independent province of Guangdong, and China’s first real estate bubble began to grow. This is destined to be a game belonging to adventurers and prophets. From 1988 to 1993, the average house price in Hainan rose from 1,350 yuan per square meter to 7,500 yuan, almost five times in five years.
(1991-1993 Hainan real estate price trend) “To make money, go to Hainan; to make a fortune, speculation.” In the early 1990s, Hainan, with a population of more than 6 million, gathered more than 20,000 real estate companies. Nowadays, the well-known commercial tycoons Feng Lun, Pan Shiyi, Yi Xiaodi, etc. have all gone south to Hainan real estate, and they have become the first warriors and profit-seekers to eat crabs in China’s real estate.
As one of the main concepts of real estate, the sea view room has already stood on the stage in the madness of Hainan real estate in the 1990s. Hainan is surrounded by the sea and is home to “Oriental Hawaii”, which makes its house bring the aura of “sea view room”, especially for coastal cities such as Haikou and Sanya.
In 1992, the economic growth rates of Haikou and Sanya were as high as 83% and 73.6% respectively, and real estate represented by sea view houses contributed. The tide recedes, knowing who is swimming naked. In June 1993, the high-rises gave an emergency brake to the overheated real estate. Hainan’s real estate heat wave fell, and the developers died and fled, leaving a mess.
“The End of the World, the Cape, the Unfinished Building” has become the three wonders of Hainan. At that time, all the land was 1,000 yuan a square sea view room, but asked the people. (The unfinished building in Haikou) Until 2006, the Hainan real estate market barely returned. Since then, the sea view room in Hainan has experienced a lot of madness and bubbles, flooding a lot of people, and has made many people.
I don’t know if it’s gratifying or sad. Because of the uniqueness of Hainan, today’s sea view room is still booming in Hainan. However, another city, Weihai Rushan, is far less fortunate. There is Erdos in the west and Weihai Rushan in the east. It is said that there are two “ghost towns”. Rushan, famous for its silver beaches, is a sea of blue sky and air, and has become a hot spot for developers to find gold.
Since 2005, along with the development of real estate in the country, more than 200 seascape projects have been built on the 20-kilometer coastline of Rushan Yintan, attracting many buyers from Tiannanhaibei. However, waiting for them is a remorse for more than a decade, and has not been able to get out of the pit. Some developers who have vowed to sell their homes have already ran a long way due to arrears in the government’s many taxes and fees, shortage of funds, and so on, leaving only a pile of mess.
Many people who bought out a million homes quickly discovered that they had to get a real estate license. Seaview How deceptive? 10 years ago, 5000 bought, now 4,000 sold (a network message of the owner of Rushan Seaview House) and because the infrastructure of Rushan Silver Beach can not keep up, there is no heating in winter, and the occupancy rate of each district has been very low. In the past few years, there have been reporters’ investigations. Even in the peak season of the sea view room from May to October, the average occupancy rate is less than 30%. In the winter, this data is as low as 5% or less.
3. It is undeniable to harvest foreigners. Sea view rooms also have many advantages. For example, the air is pleasant, the environment is beautiful, the vision is open, and the summer is suitable for vacations. However, the sea view room has an unbearable side. First of all, it is the tide that most people can’t stand. No matter the south or the north, the tide is almost terrible. The wardrobe has long hair, wooden furniture is moldy, and even the bathroom is long mushroom. If you live for a long time, your body will be greatly affected.
For some elderly people who are pursuing health care, this is still a matter of keeping fit. It is simply spending money to find sin.
Seaview How deceptive? 10 years ago, 5000 bought, now 4,000 sells another, first and second line sea view rooms, often close contact with the sea breeze. The sea breeze is rich in water vapor, and it is also rich in salt, so it is highly corrosive. Furniture, home appliances, etc. are easily corroded, and even the anti-theft net is not spared. In engineering, there is even a special term “salt damage” to summarize the negative effects of the coastal environment.
More deadly, the typhoon is a problem that most seascapes can’t. For example, according to statistics, from 1949 to 2017, the number of typhoons in Hainan was as high as 20, and at least four in the least year. The landing of some large typhoons may even cause a large number of casualties and property economic losses. The first sea view room is undoubtedly a very injured one. Therefore, Hainan introduced restrictions in 2013, and will no longer approve residential land within 200 meters of the highest tide level on the coastline. So, basically local people will not buy a sea view room.